Baillie lab, Roslin Institute,
University of Edinburgh

COVID-19 response

We have been preparing for outbreaks for many years and worked with the WHO on influenza, MERS and Ebola. At the start of 2020 we changed the entire focus of the lab from doing our own research, to supporting multiple strands of a global research effort. For example:

  • Leading the GenOMICC study, in which we contributed our unpublished data immediately and without restriction with the international community. To date we have discovered 41 genetic associations with severe Covid-19 that may led directly to at least one effective new therapy for Covid-19 sepsis.
  • Leading the ISARIC 4C consortium (together with co-leads Calum Semple and Peter Openshaw), which has provided a comprehensive description of the new disease, defining the importance of obesity, diabetes, and age; produced a widely-used prognostic tool (the 4C score); and provided essential weekly updates to government (SAGE).
  • Contributing to the steering committee, design and recruitment to the RECOVERY trial, which found the first effective treatment for Covid-19, dexamethasone and has convincingly excluded two others (hydroxycholoroquine and lopinavir/ritonavir)
  • Helping to establish and run the RECOVERY Respiratory Support trial to test different modes of ventilatory support
  • Leading global harmonisation in observational outbreak research (the ISARIC CCP)
  • Contributing to WHO Panels (Clinical Management; Research Prioritisation)
  • Providing advice on clinical management, trials and supportive care to UK Government (NERVTAG & MHRA)
  • Caring for patients with Covid-19 in intensive care

During the outbreak of acute hepatitis of unknown origin, we deployed our efforts to study the source of this infection, discovering a strong association with multiple viruses, and an extremely strong host genetic susceptibility variant.

Our pre-pandemic research is restarting now. More information on our research programme in peacetime can be found below on this site.

Translational genomics in critical illness

We are trying to understand the mechanisms that make people desperately sick in sepsis, influenza and emerging infections, so that we can find ways to help them survive and recover.

Since there is biological variation in the host response to injury, and some of this variation is genetic, we can use this genetic variation to find new treatments.

We develop and use computational methods to combine data from different sources. The ultimate aim is to use these signals to lead us to biological processes that might be amenable to treatment. We use viral respiratory illness as a model for the broader host response to critical injury.

We develop and apply computational tools, and use in vitro and in vivo genome editing with CRISPR to generate and test hypotheses.

Read a summary of our approach in this perspective article:

Baillie JK. Translational genomics: targeting the host immune response to fight infection.

Science (New York, N.Y.): 2014;344: 807-8. doi:10.1126/science.1255074

MAIC results for host genes implicated in influenza virus replication. This graph is a representation of the shared information content between each data source after MAIC. Size of data source blocks is proportional to information content – i.e. the total MAIC scores contributed by each data source. Lines showing shared information content are colored according to the dominant data source.

Combining CRISPR screen with diverse experimental sources: meta-analysis by information content (MAIC)

Using genome-wide CRISPR knockdown in human cells, we found 121 host genes that the flu virus needs to replicate itself. About half of them are new discoveries, and might make good therapeutic targets ( This is important because we've argued for a while that if we design drugs to target these host genes/proteins, it will be harder for the virus to evolve resistance to our treatments (

We found a lot of new genes, but we also validated many findings from previous groups. So we've taken the concept of meta-analysis - well established in clinical research - into basic science.

We developed an algorithm called meta-analysis by information content (MAIC) to integrate our new findings with many previous studies of host genes required by flu.

Click here to run a MAIC analysis or view the published results for influenza virus host factors.

Code to run the MAIC algorithm can be downloaded from

Li B et al. Nature Communications 11:164(2020)

Combining genetic signals with cellular transcriptomics: coexpression of GWAS hits

Our post-GWAS analysis method (network density analysis; NDA) reveals new biological features of numerous disease states and traits. It works by examining a coexpression network of transcription start sites (discovered in FANTOM5). We find that transcripts containing GWAS hits for a given trait tend to fall into more dense groupings in the coexpression network than randomly-selected transcripts.

NDA demonstrates that GWAS hits for a given disease tend to be near promoter/enhancer elements with similar expression profiles, which enables us to find more hits, fine map probable causative SNPs, and implicate cell types in pathogenesis. Surprisingly, for some diseases, the underlying variants fall into distinct functional groups, suggesting either dual mechanisms of disease, or distinct disease endotypes.

Click here to run an analysis or view the published results.

Baillie JK et al. Shared Activity Patterns Arising at Genetic Susceptibility Loci Reveal Underlying Genomic and Cellular Architecture of Human Disease.PLOS Computational Biology 14, no. 3 (March 1, 2018): e1005934. PMC5849332.

Pairwise coexpression networks derived from GWAS results. Each coloured ball indicates a transcription start region containing a GWAS-associated variant. Red - significantly coexpressed by network density analysis. Light blue - all other transcription region containing GWAS-associated variants for this phenotype.

(3d visualisation by vasturiano)
Gene set hypothesis testing.

Combining biological hypotheses with genetic signals: gene set hypothesis testing

The lack of specific hypotheses in traditional genome-wide association studies has a disadvantage - it greatly limits the statistical power, ensuring that only the strongest signals can be detected, even with very large numbers of subjects.

Gene set hypothesis testing (GSHT) enables investigators to take a biological hypothesis and test it using GWAS data. For example, in our paper, we tested the hypothesis that failure to downregulate inflammatory signals during macrophage maturation is a key mechanism in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease. We defined search criteria to find inflammatory genes that are downregulated during macrophage differentiation, and then empirically tested the hypothesis that these genes are likely to be associated with Crohn's disease.

Baillie, J. K. et al. PLOS Genetics 13, e1006641 (Mar. 6, 2017).

Testing guilt-by-association: FANTOM5

In the FANTOM5 consortium we showed that, with a sufficiently rich expression dataset, it is possible to infer functional relationships between genes (and other transcribed elements in the genome, such as enhancers and lncRNAs) by grouping them according to similarities in expression. We proved this using known pathways, but the real value of this finding is that it enables us to discover relationships between genomic regions about which almost nothing is already known.

Forrest*, Kawaji*, Rehli*, Baillie*, et al. A promoter-level mammalian expression atlas. Nature: 2014;507: 462-70. PMC4529748
FANTOM5 coexpression network

Stratified medicine

Throughout the history of medicine, progress has been made by recognizing patterns of disease, or syndromes. When new technologies are invented, they can reveal observable characteristics that have close relationships to disease trajectories, outcomes, and most importantly of all, response to therapy. Genomics and transcriptomics have these properties, but raise an additional challenge: the scale of the data is such that detecting relevant signals is a substantial computational and mathematical challenge.

Scicluna BP , Baillie JK. The Search for Efficacious New Therapies in Sepsis Needs to Embrace Heterogeneity. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine: 2018;doi:10.1164/rccm.201811-2148ED
Russell, C. D. & Baillie, J. K. Treatable traits and therapeutic targets: Goals for systems biology in infectious disease. Current Opinion in Systems Biology 2, 139–145 (Apr. 2017).
Applications of computational biology in critical care medicine.


Key papers

Selected Publications (*joint authorship) (corresponding)

(h-index: 83 | citations: 54977 | ORCID:0000-0001-5258-793X )

Morfopoulou S , Buddle S, Montaguth OET, Atkinson L, Guerra-Assunção JA, Marjaneh MM, Chiozzi RZ, Storey N, Campos L, Hutchinson JC, ..., Baillie K, Semple MG, Martin J, Ushiro-Lumb I, Noursadeghi M, Deheragoda M, Hadzic N, Grammatikopoulos T, Brown R, Kelgeri C, Thalassinos K, Waddington SN, Jacques TS, Thomson E, Levin M, Brown JR, Breuer J. Genomic investigations of unexplained acute hepatitis in children. Nature (2023); doi:10.1038/s41586-023-06003-w

Ho A , Orton R, Tayler R, Asamaphan P, Herder V, Davis C, Tong L, Smollett K, Manali M, Allan J, ..., Baillie JK, Thomson EC. Adeno-associated virus 2 infection in children with non-A-E hepatitis. Nature (2023); doi:10.1038/s41586-023-05948-2

Russell CD , Lone NI, Baillie JK. Comorbidities, multimorbidity and COVID-19. Nature Medicine (2023); 29: 334-343. doi:10.1038/s41591-022-02156-9

Hamilton FW , Thomas M, Arnold D, Palmer T, Moran E, Mentzer AJ, Maskell N, Baillie JK, Summers C, Hingorani A, MacGowan A, ..., Timpson NJ. Therapeutic potential of IL6R blockade for the treatment of sepsis and sepsis-related death: A Mendelian randomisation study. PLoS Medicine (2023); 20: e1004174. PMC9925069

Swets MC , Russell CD, Harrison EM, Docherty AB, Lone N, Girvan M, Hardwick HE, Visser LG, Openshaw PJM, Groeneveld GH, ..., Baillie JK. SARS-CoV-2 co-infection with influenza viruses, respiratory syncytial virus, or adenoviruses. Lancet (London, England) (2022); doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(22)00383-X

Kousathanas A , Pairo-Castineira E, Rawlik K, Stuckey A, Odhams CA, Walker S, Russell CD, Malinauskas T, Wu Y, Millar J, ..., Baillie JK. Whole genome sequencing reveals host factors underlying critical Covid-19. Nature (2022); doi:10.1038/s41586-022-04576-6

RECOVERY Collaborative Group . Tocilizumab in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 (RECOVERY): a randomised, controlled, open-label, platform trial. Lancet (London, England) (2021); 397: 1637-1645. PMC8084355

HGI C . Mapping the human genetic architecture of COVID-19. Nature (2021); doi:10.1038/s41586-021-03767-x

Horby P , Lim WS, Emberson JR, Mafham M, Bell JL, Linsell L, Staplin N, Brightling C, Ustianowski A, Elmahi E, ..., Baillie JK, Haynes R, Landray MJ. Dexamethasone in Hospitalized Patients with Covid-19. The New England Journal of Medicine (2021); 384: 693-704. PMC7383595

Gupta RK , Harrison EM, Ho A, Docherty AB, Knight SR, van Smeden M, Abubakar I, Lipman M, Quartagno M, Pius R, ..., Baillie JK, Semple MG, Noursadeghi M. Development and validation of the ISARIC 4C Deterioration model for adults hospitalised with COVID-19: a prospective cohort study. The Lancet. Respiratory Medicine (2021); 9: 349-359. PMC7832571

Read JM , Green CA, Harrison EM, Docherty AB, Funk S, Harrison J, Girvan M, Hardwick HE, Turtle L, Dunning J, ..., Baillie JK, Semple MG. Hospital-acquired SARS-CoV-2 infection in the UK’s first COVID-19 pandemic wave. Lancet (London, England) (2021); doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(21)01786-4

Thomson EC , Rosen LE, Shepherd JG, Spreafico R, da Silva Filipe A, Wojcechowskyj JA, Davis C, Piccoli L, Pascall DJ, Dillen J, ..., Baillie JK, Chodera JD, Rihn SJ, Lycett SJ, Virgin HW, Telenti A, Corti D, Robertson DL, Snell G. Circulating SARS-CoV-2 spike N439K variants maintain fitness while evading antibody-mediated immunity. Cell (2021); 184: 1171-1187.e20. PMC7843029

Thwaites RS , Sanchez Sevilla Uruchurtu A, Siggins MK, Liew F, Russell CD, Moore SC, Fairfield C, Carter E, Abrams S, Short C, ..., Baillie JK, Openshaw PJ. Inflammatory profiles across the spectrum of disease reveal a distinct role for GM-CSF in severe COVID-19. Science Immunology (2021); 6: PMC8128298

Pairo-Castineira E , Clohisey S, Klaric L, Bretherick AD, Rawlik K, Pasko D, Walker S, Parkinson N, Fourman MH, Russell CD, ..., Baillie JK. Genetic mechanisms of critical illness in COVID-19. Nature (2020); 591: 92-98. doi:10.1038/s41586-020-03065-y

Bretherick AD , Canela-Xandri O, Joshi PK, Clark DW, Rawlik K, Boutin TS, Zeng Y, Amador C, Navarro P, Rudan I, ..., Baillie JK, Haley C. Linking protein to phenotype with Mendelian Randomization detects 38 proteins with causal roles in human diseases and traits. PLoS Genetics (2020); 16: e1008785. PMC7337286

Clohisey S , Parkinson N, Wang B, Bertin N, Wise H, Tomoiu A, Summers KM, Hendry RW, Carninci P, Forrest ARR, ..., Baillie JK. Comprehensive Characterization of Transcriptional Activity during Influenza A Virus Infection Reveals Biases in Cap-Snatching of Host RNA Sequences. Journal of Virology (2020); 94: PMC7199409

Docherty AB , Harrison EM, Green CA, Hardwick HE, Pius R, Norman L, Holden KA, Read JM, Dondelinger F, Carson G, ..., Baillie JK, Semple MG. Features of 20133 UK patients in hospital with covid-19 using the ISARIC WHO Clinical Characterisation Protocol: prospective observational cohort study. BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.) (2020); 369: m1985. PMC7243036

Horby P , Mafham M, Linsell L, Bell JL, Staplin N, Emberson JR, Wiselka M, Ustianowski A, Elmahi E, Prudon B, ..., Baillie JK, Chappell LC, Faust SN, Jaki T, Jeffery K, Lim WS, Montgomery A, Rowan K, Tarning J, Watson JA, White NJ, Juszczak E, Haynes R, Landray MJ. Effect of Hydroxychloroquine in Hospitalized Patients with Covid-19. The New England Journal of Medicine (2020); 383: 2030-2040. PMC7556338

Knight SR , Ho A, Pius R, Buchan I, Carson G, Drake TM, Dunning J, Fairfield CJ, Gamble C, Green CA, ..., Baillie JK, Semple MG, Docherty AB, Harrison EM. Risk stratification of patients admitted to hospital with covid-19 using the ISARIC WHO Clinical Characterisation Protocol: development and validation of the 4C Mortality Score. BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.) (2020); 370: m3339. PMC7116472

Li B , Clohisey SM, Chia BS, Wang B, Cui A, Eisenhaure T, Schweitzer LD, Hoover P, Parkinson NJ, Nachshon A, ..., Baillie JK, Hacohen N. Genome-wide CRISPR screen identifies host dependency factors for influenza A virus infection. Nature Communications (2020); 11: 164. PMC6952391

Neyton LPA , Zheng X, Skouras C, Doeschl-Wilson A, Gutmann MU, Uings I, Rao FV, Nicolas A, Marshall C, Wilson L, Baillie JK, Mole DJ. Molecular Patterns in Acute Pancreatitis Reflect Generalizable Endotypes of the Host Response to Systemic Injury in Humans. Annals of Surgery (2020); doi:10.1097/SLA.0000000000003974

Parkinson N , Rodgers N, Head Fourman M, Wang B, Zechner M, Swets MC, Millar JE, Law A, Russell CD, Baillie JK, Clohisey S. Dynamic data-driven meta-analysis for prioritisation of host genes implicated in COVID-19. Scientific Reports (2020); 10: 22303. PMC7749145

Clohisey S , Baillie JK. Host susceptibility to severe influenza A virus infection. Critical Care (London, England) (2019); 23: 303. PMC6729070

Baillie JK , Bretherick A, Haley CS, Clohisey S, Gray A, Neyton LPA, Barrett J, Stahl EA, Tenesa A, Andersson R, Brown JB, ..., Hume DA. Shared activity patterns arising at genetic susceptibility loci reveal underlying genomic and cellular architecture of human disease. PLoS Computational Biology (2018); 14: e1005934. PMC5849332

Roach RC , Hackett PH, Oelz O, Bärtsch P, Luks AM, MacInnis MJ, Baillie JK. The 2018 Lake Louise Acute Mountain Sickness Score. High Altitude Medicine and Biology (2018); 19: 4-6. PMC6191821

Arabi YM , Balkhy HH, Hayden FG, Bouchama A, Luke T, Baillie JK, Al-Omari A, Hajeer AH, Senga M, Denison MR, Nguyen-Van-Tam JS, ..., Fowler RA. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome. The New England Journal of Medicine (2017); 376: 584-594. PMC5362064

Baillie JK , Arner E, Daub C, De Hoon M, Itoh M, Kawaji H, Lassmann T, Carninci P, Forrest ARR, Hayashizaki Y, Faulkner GJ, ..., Hume DA. Analysis of the human monocyte-derived macrophage transcriptome and response to lipopolysaccharide provides new insights into genetic aetiology of inflammatory bowel disease. PLoS Genetics (2017); 13: e1006641. PMC5358891

Baillie JK . Translational genomics. Targeting the host immune response to fight infection. Science (New York, N.Y.) (2014); 344: 807-8. doi:10.1126/science.1255074

Dunning JW , Merson L, Rohde GGU, Gao Z, Semple MG, Tran D, Gordon A, Olliaro PL, Khoo SH, Bruzzone R, ..., Baillie JK. Open source clinical science for emerging infections. The Lancet. Infectious Diseases (2014); 14: 8-9. PMC7158987

Forrest ARR*, Kawaji H*, Rehli M*, Baillie JK*, , de Hoon MJL, Haberle V, Lassmann T, Kulakovskiy IV, Lizio M, Itoh M, Andersson R, Mungall CJ, Meehan TF, Schmeier S, ..., Hayashizaki Y. A promoter-level mammalian expression atlas. Nature (2014); 507: 462-70. PMC4529748

Hall DP , MacCormick IJC, Phythian-Adams AT, Rzechorzek NM, Hope-Jones D, Cosens S, Jackson S, Bates MGD, Collier DJ, Hume DA, ..., Baillie JK. Network analysis reveals distinct clinical syndromes underlying acute mountain sickness. Plos One (2014); 9: e81229. PMC3898916

Baillie JK , Digard P. Influenza–time to target the host? The New England Journal of Medicine (2013); 369: 191-3. doi:10.1056/NEJMcibr1304414

Everitt AR , Clare S, Pertel T, John SP, Wash RS, Smith SE, Chin CR, Feeley EM, Sims JS, Adams DJ, ..., Baillie JK, Walsh TS, Hume DA, Palotie A, Xue Y, Colonna V, Tyler-Smith C, Dunning J, Gordon SB, Smyth RL, Openshaw PJ, Dougan G, Brass AL, Kellam P. IFITM3 restricts the morbidity and mortality associated with influenza. Nature (2012); 484: 519-23. PMC3648786

Baillie JK , Barnett MW, Upton KR, Gerhardt DJ, Richmond TA, De Sapio F, Brennan PM, Rizzu P, Smith S, Fell M, Talbot RT, ..., Faulkner GJ. Somatic retrotransposition alters the genetic landscape of the human brain. Nature (2011); 479: 534-7. PMC3224101


We are very grateful to recieve funding from the following sources: Wellcome Trust, BBSRC, Sepsis Research (FEAT), Intensive Care Society, MRC.